Chapter 5: KITEN continued

Getting Rid of Kaifu


Under Kaifu's leadership, the LDP suffered only one embarrassment in 1990 the tax evasion case of their former Environmental Agency Chief, Toshiyuki Inamura (Tanaka Faction, then Nikaido and finally to the Watanabe Faction). The scandal was enough to keep the new leaders Abe, Takeshita and Miyazawa out of Kaifu's December 29, reshuffled Second Cabinet, but they were well represented:

Takeshita -- six Cabinet posts, faction total 107
Abe
-- 5 Cabinet posts, faction total 91
Miyazawa
-- 4 Cabinet posts, faction total 84
Watanabe
-- 4 Cabinet posts, faction total 67
Komoto
(Kaifu) -- 1 Cabinet post, faction total 32

In 1991, Nakasone was readmitted into the LDP, thus paving the way for the other Recruit Scandal alumni. However, on April 26, Shintaro Abe died of liver failure, at age sixty-seven. Hiroshi Mitsuzuka, age sixty-three, became the new faction leader. Mitsuzuka's rise to power was considered significant because he was the first factional boss born in the Showa era. His choice as factional leader was perceived as accelerating a generational change. Also in 1991, Kanemaru's protegé, Ichiro Ozawa, resigned as Secretary General of the LDP to take responsibilty for the party's loss in the Tokyo gubernatorial election. Just three months later, the new LDP strongman Ozawa suffered a mild heart attack. This same year, with the fall of Communism, the Japan Socialist Party (JSP) renamed itself in English as the Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ). The SDPJ retained the original Japanese name of Nippon Shakai-to.

Nineteen hundred ninty-one was to have been the year that all of the new leaders, minus Abe (tainted by the Recruit Scandal) could come back from the shadows. Kaifu's term was up in October, and when that month came, he resigned and was promptly replaced by Miyazawa, the only new leader left from the Takeshita-Abe-Miyazawa generation.

The LDP's newest batch of new leaders and prime-minister-hopefuls were the following:

Ichiro Ozawa , Takeshita Faction (Kanemaru's protegé)
Ryutaro Hashimoto
, Takeshita Faction (Takeshita's protegé)
Tsutomu Hata
, Takeshita Faction
Michio Watanabe
, Watanabe Faction (Nakasone's protege)
Hiroshi Mitsuzuka
, Mitsuzuka Faction (the late Abe Faction)

The first three months of Miyazawa's term as Prime Minister were relatively quiet. Then on February 14, 1992, the head of Heiwado Medical Supply and Real Estate Company, Yasuo Matsuzawa, was arrested. The charge was 24.5 billion yen ($218 million) in loan fraud. Also arrested was Hiroyasu Watanabe, former president of the Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin trucking company. Matsuzawa turned on Watanabe, claiming massive political payoffs and mob favors. As of 1992 the LDP had been hit with six major scandals in its thirty-seven-year history the Shoden Scandal, the Zosen Scandal, the Black Mist Scandal, the Bungei Shunju "Study of Kakuei Tanaka" Scandal, the Lockheed Scandal and the Recruit Scandal. The seventh and perhaps most dramatic scandal was dubbed the "Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin Money and Mob Scandal." This one exposed the corrupt relationship between business, the mob and politicians. It had Tanaka praising the words "five-year statute of limitations." The Tokyo Public Prosecutor would not be coming after Tanaka this time, though his name did come up.

The Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin Money and Mob Scandal

According to the Kyodo News Service, a rightist organization by the name of Nihon Kominto, was so upset by Takeshita's disloyalty to Tanaka after his stroke in 1985, that they launched a massive smear campaign against his bid for the Prime Ministership in 1987. Nihon Kominto used more than twenty loudspeaker trucks to belt out their message, "There is no one but Mr. Takeshita who is equal to the Prime Ministership" and "Let's make Mr. Takeshita Prime Minister because he is good at making money." This kind of tactic is called "homegoroshi," literally "praise and kill" or more simply, "praise to death". In this case it was very loud praise coming from way to many trucks.
So began the "mob" part of the scandal. Nihon Kominto disruptions were the focus of a September 1987 meeting between Shin Kanemaru and Hiroyasu Watanabe, the President of Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin. At that time, prior to the election, Watanabe informed Kanemaru that underworld kingpin Susumu Ishii would solve Takeshita's problem with the Nihon Kominto on the condition that Takeshita pay his respects to his ex-mentor and visit Tanaka at Mejiro. Rituals of loyalty are very important in Japanese society and absurdly important to rightwing extremists. Around January 20, 1990, just prior to the February general election, Watanabe gave Kanemaru 500 million yen ($4.5 million), which Kanemaru failed to report as a political donation. Nonetheless, Kanemaru, his protegé Ichiro Ozawa, and Watanabe arranged a second clandestine meeting at a Tokyo hotel on October 5, to go over the plan personally with Takeshita. On October 6, Takeshita showed up at Mejiro to pay his respects to Tanaka. Thereafter, the smear campaign in Nihon Kominto came to an abrupt end. In December, Kanemaru met mob boss, Ishii, to thank him personally.

Normally this would have been viewed as LDP business as usual. Everyone knew from the Tanaka/Kenji Osano/Yoshio Kodama scandals that the underworld was deeply involved in Japanese politics. What made this so different was that Kanemaru cut out the middleman. He didn't use a Kodama or Osano type, he went straight to the source in this case to the godfather, Susumu Ishii, of the third largest crime syndicate in Japan. Inagawakai, Ishii's group, operated out of twelve prefectures and consisted of approximately 4,500 mobsters. (Yamaguchi-gumi is the largest crime group with more than 10,000 members operating in thirty-six of the forty-seven Japanese prefectures. The second largest group is a federation of 7,000 criminals known as Sumiyoshi-rengo). Tanaka had done the same thing through Osano when he ran for Prime Minister. However unlike Tanaka, Kanemaru inadvertently set Takeshita up for the media charge that he had won the 1987 election with the help of mobsters. Takeshita would spend the next year denying that he associated with mobsters and fighting off demands that he resign from politics. Though it was not likely, given his poor health, that Tanaka had orchestrated Takeshita's predicament, he could not have asked for a more complete revenge. As a spin-off of the Kanemaru investigation, Takeshita was accused of receiving 300 million yen ( $2.7 million) in illicit funds from the Heiwa Sogo Bank. Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa found himself facing trouble when a raid on twenty contruction companies produced a payment of 5.3 million yen ($41,600) to him from the Shimizu Constrution Company in the Minato ward.

Like the Lockheed Scandal, the Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin Scandal and media frenzy produced a revelation a day. One of the most interesting came from reporter Minoru Matsuzaki who confessed that given what he later came to know about the Kanemaru/Inagawa gang connection, he would have taken a mob death threat against Kakuei Tanaka more seriously in 1972. As Matsuzaki related the story, then-Prime Minister Eisaku Sato was so furious at Tanaka for edging out Takeo Fukuda, that he contacted Kodama and Ryoichi Sasagawa to find an assassin. A professional killer from Taiwan was said to have been sent to Japan. Whether it was all a hoax, or the police caught the guy, is unknown. What Sato didn't know was that Tanaka also had access to the underworld through Kenji Osano.

 

 

The Sagawa Kyubin Scandal ruined many careers, including that of the new governor of Niigata, Kiyoshi Kaneko. Kaneko, elected in 1989, received 100 million yen ($888,888) from Sagawa Kyubin. However, the real focus of this scandal was Shin Kanemaru and the 60 billion yen ($53 million) he was suspected of concealing in bank debentures, gold bullion, stock, real estate and cash. Bank debentures were used because they could be bought at less than face value and then redeemed at face value after one year. Best of all, the bearer's name did not need to be registered. In a surprise move, Kanemaru pleaded guilty to violating the Political Fund Control Law insofar as it related to the 500 million yen ($4.5 million) he got from Watanabe and Sagawa Kyubin. On August 27, 1992, he even resigned as LDP Vice President. Why he did that became clear immediately. By admitting guilt he never had to answer police questions or undergo a depositon under oath. All he had to do was pay the 200,000-yen fine ($1,780) fine and that was chump change. The public and the media were outraged. After spending thirty-five days at his home in a self-imposed exile, he reemerged on October 1, returning to his duties within the Takeshita Faction. Perhaps symbolic of the ethical decay within the LDP, the party's public relations chief, Koichi Hamada, came forth on October 5, to apologize for the Sagawa affair.[59] Hamada was a former member of the Inagawa crime syndicate before he joined the LDP and of course he had received national attention back in 1973, when he lost $1.2 million on gambling and women in Las Vegas. Kenji Osano came to his rescue (as discussed in the Lockheed section in Anten). In this same meeting of the LDP on October 5, disgraced Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone warned all attendees, in the face of back-to-back scandals, that political reform was vital to the LDP's survival. Miyazawa, along with other LDP elders, failed to understand that message.

By December, 1992, the LDP was in crisis: the Takeshita Faction, which was keeping the Miyazawa Government afloat, was spliting into two camps. With Kanemaru on the back bench, Ozawa felt that it was time to cut his loses or go down with his mentor. One of Ozawa's inter-factional rivals, Seiroku Kajiyama (also named in the Sagawa Scandal), saw his opportunity to clip Ozawa's wings. A leadership struggle began to erode factional unity, and on December 18, Ozawa, along with political reformer Tsutomu Hata and forty-two other faction members, bolted from Keiseikai. The Takeshita Faction came to an end after only five-and-a-half years in existence. Takeshita's protegé, Keizo Obuchi, inherited what was left of Keiseikai. With the collaspe of the largest faction in the LDP, Miyazawa was forced to reshuffle his Cabinet. Unfortunately, eight of his new Cabinet Ministers were tainted by the Sagawa Scandel. Going into 1993, the Miyazawa Government was in trouble. The LDP looked as follows:

Mitsuzuka Faction (Abe) -- 74 members
Miyazawa Faction
-- 73 members
Watanabe Faction
(Nakasone) -- 67 members
Obuchi Faction
(former Takeshita) -- 62 members
Hata/Ozawa Faction
(former Takeshita) -- 44 members
Komoto Faction
(Kaifu) -- 32 members
Kato Group
-- 13 members
Independents
-- 19 members

On March 6, 1993, Shin Kanemaru, age seventy-eight was arrested on tax evasion, bribery and bid rigging charges. The government said he owed them 1.04 billion yen ($9.24 million) on 1.85 billion yen ($16.44 million) in revenue concealed between 1987-1989. The arrest came on the very last day before the five-year statute of limitations ran out for 1987. Kanemaru complained that he couldn't sleep in his 9-by-6-foot cell and that the food was awful. After twenty-three days in prison, Kanemaru's attorney showed up with 300 million yen ($2.7 million) in cash to post bail. An embattled and disgraced Takeshita waited for him at his residence.

Far more devastating than Kanemaru's arrest was the video image of public authorities hauling gold bars out of his home and office. It was like a scene from Juzo Itami's film masterpiece A Taxing Woman. The gold bullion was found not only in his office safe but also hidden beneath the floor boards in his house.[61] Other loot was discovered in an apartment clandestinely kept by his son. When all was said and done, Kanemaru had failed to declare 4.3 billion yen ($38.2 million) in income, a Japanese record for a lawmaker. That number includes 1 billion yen ($8.9 million) he had inherited from his wife. Kanemaru's tab in back taxes and penalties came to 2.1 billion yen ($18.6 million). To a nation in recession, Kanemaru became a symbol of all that was rotten with government.

The Kanemaru case exposed a great deal about the LDP system of collecting money. The new political buzz word became shitofumeikin (literally "money unaccounted for"). As it turned out, the Finance Ministry permits corporations to officially declare murky untitled donations as shitofumeikin. As long as the companies pay 37.5 percent tax on the money, the government will ask no more questions about it and of course there are no penalities for not saying where the shitofumeikin money goes. In 1992, a total of 4,722 companies reported 64 billion yen ($507 million) in shitofumeikin.[62] It is little wonder that the Sato, Tanaka and Takeshita Factions so dominated the Finance Ministry over the years.
By June 18, the cry for political reform reached a fever pitch. On this day the opposition parties succeeded in forcing a vote of no-confidence in the Lower House. It was the first such vote since 1980 and only the fourth such vote since World War II. At first glance, Miyazawa's position seemed secure:

LDP -- 274 votes
SDPJ (plus Shaminren)
-- 140 votes
Komeito
-- 46 votes
JCP
-- 16 votes
DSP
-- 13 votes
Independents
-- 8 votes
Vacancies
-- 15

However, instead of the predicted 274 to 219 vote of confidence, Miyazawa received 255 votes to 220 votes of no-confidence. The unthinkable happened thirty-nine LDP members joined the opposition and the LDP was out-voted. Miyazawa had little choice but to call for a national election set for July 18, 1993.

The June 27 Tokyo Metropolitan election proved to be an interesting prelude to the national election. Morihiro Hosokawa, age fifty-nine, had formed the Japan New Party the year before, in May 1992. He, along with three other Japan New Party members, won seats in the 1992 House of Councilors election. His JNP surprised everyone, winning 20 seats in the 1993 Tokyo Metropolitan election.

Hosokawa is a true Japanese blue blood his maternal grandfather was Prince Fumimaro Konoe who had served as Prime Minister from 1937 to 1939 and then again from 1940 to 1941. The Hosokawa family is one of the most famous Samurai families in Japan. Morihiro was originally elected to the Diet as a member of the LDP in 1971. He was a loyal member of the Tanaka Faction. In 1983, he returned to local politics as Governor of Kumamoto Prefecture, a post that he held until 1991.

On June 18, 1993, Masayoshi Takemura, age 59, formerly of the Abe Faction, left the LDP and formed his own ten member party called Sakigake or Harbinger Party, thus joining Hosokawa on the outside. Takemura's defection was followed three days later by the faction of Tsutomu Hata, age fifty-seven and Ichiro Ozawa, age fifty-one, who formed the Shinseito or New Life Party. It was Hata's group that broke the back of the LDP. Said Hata, "We believe it is crucial to carry out political reform, including reform of the electoral system in order to restore the public's trust in politicians." Hata and Ozawa, both early Tanaka protegés, dramatically changed the political numbers. The LDP, prior to the July 18 election, was reduced to 219 members. The combined strength of those in opposition was 274. After thirty-eight years in power, the LDP could only hope the electorate feared change more than they hated corruption.

Makiko Tanaka

Only two weeks before the official July 4 campaign start date, Makiko Tanaka announced her candidacy for the Lower House of Niigata's Third District. Makiko ran as an Independent. When asked why she did not run in the last election, she said that she was too busy taking care of her father and helping her husband in his election. Makiko was forty-nine years old. Critics immediately accussed her of running on her father's name to keep the district's Diet seat warm for her son who was not yet twenty-five. Others wondered if she had burned too many bridges with former Etsuzankai members to be successful in her bid for public office. Makiko took the challenge like her father had done. She got rid of the designer clothes, put on slacks, wore rubber boots in the rain, and exhaustively stumped the campaign trail. She argued passionately for social welfare and portrayed herself as the housewives' champion.

Makiko's dynamic approach to the election worked. She easily won her father's old seat. This was proof that the people of the Third District had not forgetten Kakuei Tanaka. The result of the election in the 3rd District went as follows:

1st place, Makiko Tanaka, age 49, independent -- 93,319 votes
2nd place
, Yukio Hoshino, age 61, incumbent, Shinseito Party -- 84,997 votes
3rd place
, Shin Sakurai, age 60, incumbent, LDP -- 66,128 votes
4th place
, Tomio Sakagami, age 66, former DSPJ -- 49,825 votes
5th place
, Tatsuo Murayama, age 78, incumbent, LDP -- 49,158 votes
Lost, Hideo Watanabe, age 59, incumbent, LDP -- 48,882 votes
Lost, Kichinosuke Meguro, age 59. incumbent DSPJ -- 39,854 votes
Lost, Tadao Hiroi, age 50, Hosokawa's Japan New Party -- 21,199 votes
Lost, Kyumei Maruyama, age 54, JCP -- 14,699 votes

Once elected, Makiko gave up her position as an Independent and joined the LDP. Said Dietman Yoshito Sengoku of the SDPJ, "In Japan's political landscape, your ascent to power depends on your ability to make others indebted to you." Makiko Tanaka had a lot of family debts to call in, and she used that power well. After the election, Makiko said, "Although I realize that the intimate and strong ties my father and voters built up over the last forty years helped me win the election, I also won votes from people who were indifferent about politics and who supported other parties."[63] In this dramatic election, her husband Naoki won back his seat in Fukushima's Third District. Election 1993 was a hugh triumph for the Tanaka family; it was also a huge defeat for the LDP. If the opposition could form a coalition, the LDP would be out:

LDP -- 223 members
SDPJ
-- 70
Shinseito
-- 55
Komeito
51
Japan New Party
-- 35
JCP
-- 15
DSP
-- 15
Sakigake
-- 13
Shaminren
-- 4
Independents
-- 30

The opposition forces moved quickly to form an historic coalition. Hosokawa was chosen to lead the new order. The LDP selected Yohei Kono (outspoken critic of Kakuei Tanaka during the Lockheed Scandal) as their post-election leader. The Diet election was held on August 6. Hosokawa garnered 262 votes to the Kono's 224. Miyazawa and his Cabinet resigned and Hosokawa was the new Prime Minister of Japan. Hosokawa bested Tanaka's long-held 1972 record of a 62-percent national approval rating. He came in at 76 percent, the highest in history.

Makiko was quick to criticize Hosokawa as indecisive. She told an audience at the Foreign Correspondents Club in Tokyo that he was an old family friend who had tried to get her to join his Japan New Party. He was a good father, but changed his mind to much. She went on to warn that Ichiro Ozawa was the one pulling all the strings from behind. It was the LDP's campaign position that Ozawa was as dirty as any of them and, even worse, that he was a traitor too. Makiko may not have liked politics in 1985, but ironically, she seemed to enjoy the 1993 environment. She wrapped up her speech by reminding everyone that, "I am a Yamato Nadeshiko, or a traditional Japanese lady demure, retiring and shy."[64]

July's political jubilation at Mejiro soon turned to concern and sorrow. In September, Tanaka was hospitalized briefly for diabetes. Later that month, he was secretly taken to Keio University Hospital. At 2:04 p.m. on Thursday, December 16, 1993, Kakuei Tanaka died of pneumonia. His body was moved back to Mejiro. Eight hundred some reporters flocked to Tanaka's home and sixty police officers needed to be mobilized to guard the compound. Said one neighbor, "I feel this is the end of an era. I don't think that people and reporters ever will gather here again."[65] Said another, "Makiko was heart-broken. Her eyes were swollen from crying."[66] Naoki and Yuichiro attended to all the visitors who streamed in to Mejiro to pay their last respects. Hana and Makiko made arrangements for a Christmas Day funeral.

 

Tanaka Dead At Age 75

Condolences came from all quarters:

Said his lifelong rival Takeo Fukuda, "I'm filled with deep emotion. He had a superior ability to judge and act." When asked about the "Kaku-Fuku War," he added, " That was politics. Personally I have been on good terms with Tanaka."[67]

Noboru Takeshita, who was allowed into Mejiro this time, said, "Tanaka was a political genius." "I served in the Tanaka Cabinet as his Chief Cabinet Secretary and I am very much indebted to him in public and private life."[68]

Said Ichiro Ozawa, "Tanaka not only taught me the ABC's of politics from the time I was first elected to the national legislature but also was concerned about me like a real father."[69]

Ex-Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone said, "Tanaka pioneered a new type of politics for the nation. Although some of his approaches to politics drew criticism, Tanaka served as a link between the people and politics, which was a great achievement."[70]

Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa stated that he felt deep sorrow over the passing of his one-time mentor. "[Tanaka] was loved by the people for his excellent talent and human feelings [ninjo]."[71] Hosokawa went on to say, "Some will admire his work and others will regret his sins, but my impression is that his accomplishments were substantial."[72]

The Chairman of the Democratic Socialist Party of Japan, Tomiichi Murayama, crystallized Tanaka's impact on history when he said, " Kakuei Tanaka represented postwar conservative politicians." "He was the symbol of light and shade in postwar Japan."[73]

Tanaka's funeral was held on Saturday, December 25. It was a joint funeral sponsored by the Tanaka family and the LDP. It was held at the Aoyama Funeral Hall in downtown Tokyo. Every living Prime Minister attended: Takeo Fukuda, Zenko Suzuki, Yasuhiro Nakasone, Noboru Takeshita, Sosuke Uno, Toshiki Kaifu, Kiichi Miyazawa and Morihiro Hosokawa. Even the former Socialist Chairwoman, Takako Doi was there, as was the Chairman of the DSPJ Tomiichi Murayama. About two hundred and fifty political and business leaders, along with five thousand others attended the funeral.

A second funeral was held on Monday, December 27, in Tanaka's hometown of Nishiyama. Approximately one thousand people joined the Tanaka family in this remembrance. Many of them had been members of Etsuzankai. The Mayor of Nishiyama, Giichi Totsugu, acted as the chief mourner. He reminded the attendees what Tanaka had done for what he described as "this winter weather worn, once poverty-stricken area."[74] The Governor of Niigata added, "Kakuei Tanaka made it possible for all of us to emerge from our snowbound backwardness and rectified the imbalance (between Omote and Ura Nihon).[75] The funeral in Nishiyama was followed by a third ceremony in Nagaoka, sponsored by Echigo Kotsu and other Tanaka business affiliates. Nearly five thousand people came to pay their last respects.

The local eulogies focused on Tanaka the man. Said one old Etsuzankai veteran, "Mr. Tanaka was a man easily moved to tears. Some criticize his money politics, but it is just that he expressed his ninjo (human feelings) by giving presents and money. He did not expect anything for that."[76]

The above Etsuzankai point of view is illustrated in a story told by a Niigata Nippo staff reporter who wrote, "In July, 1972, Tanaka's supporters from Kariwa County and Kashiwazaki City went to Tokyo for his inauguration party. At the end of that party two little elementary school girls stepped forward to present Tanaka with flowers. Tanaka was visibly moved. He summoned his secretary to bring his wallet to him on the stage. Tanaka gave each of the girls a 10,000-yen bank note. Shocked by the crassness of Tanaka's behavior, a reporter demanded an explanation. Tanaka fired back, what do you think is the most important thing in life? Life itself is the most important thing in life. After that money is the most important thing in life. I'm filled with happiness to give these little girls money, the most important thing to me next to life itself. The writer ended his story by stating that he saw some truth to Tanaka's point of view. He added that he was hard pressed to think of a man who was more faithful to his own philosophy than Kakuei Tanaka."[77]

As regards Tanaka's languishing final appeal in the Lockheed case, after his death, the Japanese Supreme Court had no choice but to drop the charges. In death as in life, Tanaka stayed one step ahead of the law. For one final time he lived up to his reputation he was Fushicho , the Phoenix.

Tanaka didn't live to see the Hosokawa Government fall after just eight months, only to be followed by yet another alumnus of the old Tanaka Faction, 58 year old Tsutomu Hata. Hosokawa, like Kanemaru, had been done in by the Sagawa Kyubin Money and Mob Scandal, having received a loan of 25 million yen ($220,000). As for Hata, he is best remembered by Americans as the former agriculture minister who claimed Japanese intestines were different from American intestines and therefore couldn't digest American beef. In Japan, Hata is viewed in several ways -- some think he is a nice guy and others see him only as a puppet of Tanaka-want-a-be, Ichiro Ozawa. Hata's nickname is "happo bijin "or eight-faced beauty, because he tries to look good for everyone. Whether Ozawa will be as adept with front men as Tanaka remains to be seen.

 

Citizen Tanaka

The story of Kakuei Tanaka began in the Introduction with a brief comparison with Huey P. Long. Both men slept little and drank much. They had a self-destructive passion for power and money. Each confused power and ethics, yet each had few critics within the ranks of the poor. Tanaka and Long knew how to appeal to the emotions of their time. Long's critics called him a "pestilence." Tanaka's critics have not been any kinder. Said Tatou Takahama, a senior fellow at the Yomiuri Research Institute, "His [Tanaka's] death symbolizes the end of money politics; the Japanese people are fed up with it."[78] Takahama misses the simplist of political truths; to quote Tanaka himself, "In politics you need a majority, and in order to get a majority you need money."[79] Even with Tanaka's passing, that reality is not going to change. Takeshita and Kanemaru knew they needed money, but what they lacked was Tanaka's covert and overt skill in using it.

All the good Tanaka and Long did was tainted by controversy and corruption. Nonetheless, they projected something admired in both American and Japanese culture a winning, can-do personality.

In 1984, an eleven-year-old boy from an Osaka elementary school sparked a national debate when his poem entitled "I Like Kakuei Tanaka" was published. It read, "Today is the day when Kakuei Tanaka faces a verdict in his trial. All the television stations are carrying the news. Many people dislike what Kakuei Tanaka has done. But I like Kakuei Tanaka. He has courage. I like his commanding way of walking. And his characteristic way of raising a hand is also cool. I think I'll walk in a commanding way like him when I grow up."[80]

 

Long was succeeded by his brother Earl and then later by his son Russell. Tanaka has been succeeded by his daughter and we have yet to see if his grandson, Yuichiro Tanaka, will pick up the political baton. Long's relatives lacked his ruthless drive and it is most likely that Tanaka's heirs will also lack that instinct to build an empire. The desperate historic conditions that created Long and Tanaka do not exist for their family successors and once the two men left the political arena, their organizations quickly disbanded.

Tanaka and Long are despised for the way they did things, but loved for what they did on behalf of their previously forgotten constituents. Tanaka's name will always be among the first mentioned in the history of Niigata Prefecture, just as Long's tops the list in Lousiana. National critics would argue that Tanaka, just like Long, appealed to only the ignorant and the poor. Yet no one can deny that both men were intelligent and that each had a gift for appearing to be a spokesman for the disenfranchised in society. In the case of Kakuei Tanaka, one thing is for sure: when the question is asked, "What kind of men rebuilt Japan from the ashes of the Pacific War?" a significant part of that answer will be men like Kakuei Tanaka.

 


x

 


 

Appendix A
List Of Kakuei Tanaka's Family Members

* Fume Tanaka -- Kakuei's mother (born August 15, 1887)
* Hana Sakamoto -- Kakuei's wife
* Hideo Tanaka-- Kakuei's cousin who managed his construction company
* Kakuji Tanaka -- Kakuei's father
* Kihei Sakamoto -- Kakuei's late father-in-law
* Kome Tanaka -- Kakuei's grandmother
* Makiko Tanaka -- Kakuei's daughter
* Masanori Tanaka -- Kakuei's son (born 1942; died 1948)
* Naoki Suzuki -- Tanaka Kakuei's son-in-law
* Nobuo Tanaka -- Kakuei's cousin who managed his construction company
* Koichi Oshimi -- Kakuei's cousin who managed his construction company
* Sachiko Kazamatsuri -- Kakuei's youngest sister
* Shizuko Sakamoto -- Kakuei's stepdaughter
* Sutekichi Tanaka -- Kakuei's grandfather
* Toshie Tanaka -- Kakuei's younger sister
* Toshio Tanaka -- Tanaka's cousin and personal secretary at Mejiro
* Yasuhiko Kazamatsuri -- Kakuei's brother-in-law and CEO of Chotetsu Kogyo Gravel Company
* Yuichiro Tanaka -- Kakuei's grandson by Makiko
* Yukie Tanaka -- Kakuei's younger sister

Appendix B
List Of Kakuei Tanaka's Staff

* Enomoto, Toshio -- Tanaka's chief secretary
* Esaki, Masumi -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant (Aichi Prefecture)
* Gotoda, Masaharu -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant (Tokushima Prefecture)
* Hayasaka, Shigezo -- Tanaka's political secretary
* Hara, Choei -- Tanaka's Chairman of Tokyo Etsuzankai
* Hikita, Teruji -- Tanaka's trusted personal secretary before Enomoto
* Honma, Koichi -- Director of Echigo Kotsu and Etsuzankai (nicknamed "the shadow governor of Niigata")
* Iriuchijima, Kinichi -- Tanaka's head of Muromachi Sangyo; confessed in Tankan bribery case in 1948
* Kanemaru, Shin -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant (Yamanashi Prefecture)
* Kasahara, Masanori -- Tanaka's personal chauffeur
* Kataoka, Jinmatsu -- Chairman of Etsuzankai in Niigata
* Kotajima, Kazutaro -- Tanaka supporter who betrayed him in the 1946 election
* Nikaido, Susumu -- Tanaka Faction chief lieutenant (Kagoshima Prefecture)
* Oasa,Tadao -- Tanaka Construction Company Advisor in 1946 and Dietman of the Shinpo-to Party
* Ozawa, Tatsuo -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant (Niigata Prefecture)
* Sato, Aki "Queen of Etsuzankai "and Tanaka's most trusted aide
* Seki, Toei -- Tanaka's trusted retainer in charge of Shinsei Kigyo (helped create Etsuzankai)
* Shimizu, Takashi -- Enomoto's chauffeur
* Shinzeki, Katsuyoshi -- Tanaka's chief defense council
* Takano, Seiji Tanaka's employee and old army buddy who helped create Etsuzankai
* Takeshita, Noboru -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant who usurped the faction in 1987 (Shimane Prefecture)

* Tsuji, Kazuko -- Tanaka's mistress
* Tsukada, Juichiro -- Tanaka Construction Company auditor who betrayed Tanaka in 1946 and the Governor of Niigata from 1961 to 1966
* Yamada, Taiji -- Tanaka's public works secretary
* Yamashita, Ganri -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant (Shiga Prefecture)
* Yoshizawa, Nitaro -- Tanaka supporter who betrayed him in the 1946 election

Appendix C
List Of All Other Names

* Abe, Shintaro -- Fukuda Faction lieutenant and factional boss
* Aichi, Kiichi -- Sato Faction lieutenant
* Akihito -- The Emperor Heisei, 1989 - present
* Amaterasu -- Sun Goddess
* Aoki, Ihei -- Takeshita's personal secretary
* Arakawa, Shizue -- Head of Etsuzankai Women's Association
* Araki, Sadao -- 1936 Army General and leader of far rightwing Kodo-ha organization
* Ashida, Hitoshi -- Prime Minister of a three-party coalition (held office for eight months in 1948),
resigned because of the Shoden Scandal
* Doi, Takako -- First woman chairman of the Japan Socialist Party
* Ejiri, Isamu -- Mayor of Nishiyama
* Enomoto, Mieko -- Wife of Tanaka's secretary, Toshio Enomoto
* Ezoe, Hiromasa -- Chairman of Recruit Cosmos Company
* Fujinami, Takao -- Nakasone Faction member caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Fujio, Masayuki -- Part of the Fukuda Faction and an ex-member of the Blue Storm Group
* Fujiwara, Koichi -- Director of All Nippon Airways (ANA Route in the Lockheed Scandal)
* Fukuda, Hajime -- LDP Independent and Justice Minister
* Fukuda, Hiroichi -- Takeo Fukuda's younger brother
* Fukuda, Tadashi -- President of the largest construction company in Niigata (father of Kazuko Ozawa)
* Fukuda, Takeo -- Sato lieutenant and factional boss (Tanaka's arch rival)
* Fukuda, Tetsuo -- Yakuza thug who attacked Akiyuki Nosaka in the 1983 Niigata election
* Goto, Keita -- President of Tokyu Transportation Company
* Hamada, Koichi -- LDP Public Relations Chief (bailed out of trouble in Las Vegas by Kenji Osano)
* Hamada, Takujiro -- Parlimentary Foreign Vice Minister caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Hasegawa, Takashi -- Abe Faction member and Justice Minister in 1988
* Hashimoto, Ryutaro -- Takeshita Faction lieutenant
* Hashimoto, Tomisaburo -- Sato Faction lieutenant and Transportation Minister caught up in the Lockheed Scandal
* Hara, Takashi -- First commoner Prime Minister and president of the Seyukai
* Hata, Tsutomu -- Tanaka Faction, Takeshita Faction lieutenant, Hata Faction boss and Shinseito Party boss
* Hatano, Akira -- Tanaka's friend who was made Justice Minister in 1982
* Hatoyama, Ichiro -- Father of the Japan Liberal Party, faction boss and Prime Minister 1954
* Higashikuni, Naruhiko -- (Prince) Surrendered Japan to MacArthur
* Higashiyama, Hirosato -- Sokaiya -type racketeer who attacked Miyazawa in 1984
* Hirohito -- The Emperor Showa, 1926 - 1989
* Hiyama, Hiro -- President of Marubeni
* Honda, Masanobu -- Advisor to Shogun Ieyasu Tokugawa
* Hori, Shigeru -- Sato Faction lieutenant
* Horinouchi, Hisao -- Minister of Agriculture in Uno's Cabinet, 1984
* Hoshino, Kazuya -- Riken executive in Kashiwazaki who helped Tanaka with his construction business and then later helped him win his first election
* Hoshino, Yukio -- Mayor of Ojiya and Etsuzankai leader
* Hosokawa, Morihiro -- Tanaka Faction member in 1971, Governor of Kumamoto and Prime Minister in 1993
* Ibuki, Bunmei -- LDP member caught up in the Recruit Scandal in 1987
* Ikeda, Hayato -- Yoshida Factional lieutenant, factional boss, Prime Minister in 1960
* Ikeda, Katsuya -- Komeito member caught up in the Recruit Scandal in 1987
* Inaba, Osamu -- Justice Minister from Niigata who arrested Tanaka for Lockheed bribe
* Inamura, Ryuichi -- Socialist who placed first over Tanaka in the 1955 Niigata
* Inoue, Kaoru -- Choshu leader and member of first Meiji Genro in 1889
* Ishibashi, Tanzan -- Hatoyama lieutenant and Prime Minister in 1956
* Ishihara, Shintaro -- Famous writer, Nakagawa lieutenant,ex- member of the Blue Storm Group, Abe Faction
* Ishii, Susumu -- Godfather of the Inagawakai crime syndicate
* Itami, Juzo -- Famous film director
* Ito, Hirobumi -- Choshu leader, architect of the Meiji Consitution and Prime Minister four times (First took office in 1885)
* Ito, Hiroshi -- Managing Director at Marubeni under Okubo, Lockheed defendant
* Ito, Masayosh -- Refused the Prime Ministership in 1989; lieutenant in the Miyazawa Faction
* Iwakura, Tomomi -- Court noble during the Meiji Restoration
* Izanagi -- Mythical creator of Japan (male god) featured in the Kojiki
* Izanami -- Mythical creator of Japan (female goddess) featured in the Kojiki
* Jinmu -- Japan's first emperor according to biblical history, 660 B.C.
* Jo, Nagamochi -- Taira Faction Echigo warlord 1180, Sukenaga's younger brother
* Jo, Sukenaga -- Taira Faction Echigo warlord 1180, descendant of Koremochi
* Jo, Sukemori -- Taira Faction Echigo warlord 1180, Nagamochi's nephew3.6+9m
* Kageyama, Jiro -- Comic who ran against Tanaka in the 1983 Niigata election
* Kaifu, Toshiki -- Komoto Faction lieutenant who became interim Prime Minister in 1989
* Kanai, Mitsuo -- Tanaka's fifth grade homeroom teacher
* Kaneko, Kiyoshi Governor of Niigata caught in Sagawa Kyubin Money and Mob Scandal, 1992
* Kanemaru, Shin -- Tanaka Faction lieutenant, LDP kingpin; arrested for Sagawa Scandal in 1993
* Kanmu -- The Taira/Heishi Emperor, 782 - 805
* Katayama, Tetsu -- First and only Socialist Prime Minister, 1947
* Kato, Ieji -- Aki Sato's ex-husband
* Kato, Koichi -- Miyazawa Faction lieutenant caught up in the Recruit Scandal, but not arrested
* Kato, Mutsuki -- Abe Faction member caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Kido, Takayoshi -- Choshu warlord during Meiji Restoration
* Kiguchi, Nobuyuki -- Lockheed trial judge
* Kimi, Takeo -- Governor of Niigata
* Kimura, Takeo -- LDP Dietman; helped Tanaka secretly organize his faction against the will of Sato
* Kishi, Nobusuke -- Hatoyama Faction lieutenant, Prime Minister in 1957 (Sato's older brother)
* Kitamura, Koichi -- Yoshio Kodama's physician
* Kiwano, Nikkyo -- Chairman of Rissho Koseikai
* Kobayashi, Susumu -- Japan Socialist Party Dietman in Niigata's Third District
* Kodama, Takaya -- Bungei Shunju journalist who espoused Aki Sato
* Kodama, Yoshio -- Behind-the-scenes political fixer who bankrolled the Liberal Party
* Kogure, Yamato -- Tanaka-sponsored candidate dispatched to weaken Osamu Inaba in the Second
District
* Komano, Tadao -- Replaced Ejiri as the Mayor of Nishiyama
* Komastu, Hideki -- Vice Mayor of Kawasaki; first to be caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Komoto, Toshio -- Miki Faction lieutenant, faction boss
* Kono, Ichiro -- Hatoyama Faction lieutenant and Sato's arch rival
* Kono, Yohei -- 1993 President of the LDP; outspoken critic of Tanaka during the Lockheed trial
* Kurihara, Hirohisa -- Tanaka-sponsored candidate dispatched to weaken Osamu Inaba in 1983
* Kuroda, Kiyotaka -- Satsuma leader during the Meiji Restoration
* Machida Leader of the 1946 Nippon Shinpo-to who recruited Tanaka into politics
* Maeda, Toshiie -- Clan warlord (1538 - 1599) whose son sided with Ieyasu Tokugawa at Sekigahara in 1600
* Maeno, Mitsuyasu -- Porno star who dive-bombed a light plane into Yoshio Kodama's house
* Matsukata, Masayoshi -- Satsuma leader during the Meiji Resoration
* Matsuoka, Katsuhiro -- Ito's chauffeur at Marubeni
* Matsuzawa, Yasuo -- Head of the Heiwado Medical Supply and Real Estate Company
* Meguro, Kichinosuke -- Socialist who placed first in Niigata's Third District, 1990
* Miki, Takeo -- Hatoyama Faction lieutenant, faction boss, interim Prime Minister in 1974
* Minamoto, Yoritomo -- The first Minamoto Shogun, 1147 - 1199
* Mitsuzuka, Hiroshi -- Abe Faction lieutenant; inherited the faction after Abe's death in 1991
* Miyagi, Otoya -- Famous psychologist who wrote about Tanaka's character
* Miyazawa, Kiichi Suzuki Faction lieutenant, faction boss, Prime Minister in 1992
* Mori, Hidekazu -- Marubeni official (Lockheed Scandal)
* Mori, Terumoto -- Clan warlord (1553 - 1625) who fought against Ieyasu Tokugawa at Sekigahara
* Mori, Yoshiro -- Abe Faction member; Education Minister during the Recruit Scandal
* Morosato, Masanori -- Mayor of Tokamachi; Etsuzankai leader
* Murayama, Tatsuo -- Miyazawa Faction member, Third District in Niigata
* Mutsuhito -- The Emperor Meiji, 1868 - 1912
* Nagata, Tetsuzan -- Tosei-ha army leader prior to the Pacific War
* Nagayama, Tadahiko -- Lockheed trial judge
* Nakagawa, Ichiro -- Rightwing factional boss; member of the Blue Storm Group
* Nakai, Tokuya -- Marubeni employee
* Nakasone, Hirofumi -- Nakasone's son
* Nakasone, Yasuhiro -- Kono Faction lieutenant, faction boss, Prime Minister in 1982
* Ninigi -- Mythical grandson of Amaterasu who took human form
* Nishimura, Eiichi -- Chairman of Nanokakai in 1976
* Niwayama, Yasunori -- CEO of Echigo Kotsu
* Nomiyama, Kunimitsu -- Marubeni employee
* Nosaka, Akiyuki -- Fiction writer who returned to Niigata to run against Tanaka in 1983
* Obuchi, Keizo -- Takeshita Faction lieutenant who became Factional boss in 1992
* Ohira, Masayoshi -- Ikeda Faction lieutenant, faction boss, Prime Minister in 1978
* Okada, Mitsunori -- Lockheed judge who convicted Tanaka in 1983
* Okada, Shohei -- Governor of Niigata in 1947 during Tadami construction project
* Okochi, Masatoshi -- (Viscount) Tanaka's mentor in 1937
* Okubo, Toshiharu -- Managing Director of Marubeni, Lockheed defendant
* Okubo, Toshimichi -- Satsuma warlord during the Meiji Restoration
* Okuda, Keiwa -- Tanaka Faction member, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications in 1984
* Okuno, Seisuke -- LDP Independent, Justice Minister in 1981
* Ono, Banboku -- Yoshida Faction lieutenant, faction boss
* Osano, Eiko -- Kenji Osano's wife
* Osano, Kenji -- Underworld kingpin, Tanaka's life long friend, Chairman of Kokusai Kogyo Company
* Osano, Masakuni -- Kenji Osano's brother
* Osano, Takamasa -- Kenji Osano's nephew
* Ozawa, Ichiro -- Tanaka Faction, Takeshita Faction lieutenant, Kanemaru's protegé, co-faction boss of LDP break away party Shinseito ( with Tsutomu Hata). Tanaka want to be of the ruling coalition
* Ozawa, Kazuko -- Ichiro Ozawa's wife (Tanaka introduced Ichiro to her)
* Oyama, Iwao -- Satsuma leader during the Meiji Restoration
* Saigo, Takamori -- Satsuma warlord during the Meiji Restoration (the last Samurai)
* Saigo, Tsugumichi -- Satsuma leader during the Meiji Restoration
* Sanjo, Sanetomi -- Court noble during the Meiji Restoration
* Saito, Fumiyo -- Sold Hasugata and Toyanogata lagoons to Tanaka in 1961
* Sakurai, Shin -- Ex-Etsuzankai, LDP Dietman from Niigata's Third District
* Sasagawa, Ryoichi -- Underworld kingpin and head of Nippon Senpaku Shinkokai
* Sakurauchi,Yoshio -- the stopgap leader of the Nakasone Faction in 1989 prior to Michio Watanabe
* Sasaki, Kozo -- Ex-Chairman of the Japan Socialist Party
* Sato, Eisaku -- Yoshida Faction lieutenant, faction boss (Tanaka's boss), Prime Minister 1964 - 1972
* Sato, Seishiro
-- Riken factory manager at Kashiwazaki in 1946
* Sato, Takayuki -- Ex-Parlimentary Vice Minister for Transport caught in the Lockheed Scandal
* Sengoku, Yoshito -- Member of the Socialist Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ)
* Shidehara, Kijiro -- Appointed as Japan's first postwar Prime Minister; head of the Doshi club
* Shigemune, Yuzo -- Sato loyalist
* Shikibu, Takenouchi -- Famous anti-Tokugawa spokesman from Echigo (Sonno Ron)
* Shinada, Yoshitane -- President of Shinada Construction Company
* Shinto, Hisashi -- Ex-Chairman of Nippon Telephone & Telegraph
* Suzuki, Kazuhiro -- Sold Toyanogata and Hasugata Lagoons to Tanaka in 1961 (Saito's partner)
* Suzuki, Naoto -- Naoki Tanaka's father, Fukushima Dietman
* Suzuki, Zenko -- Ohira Faction lieutenant, factional boss, Prime Minister in 1980
* Tanabe, Choemon -- Lumber baron, Takeshita's mentor
* Tachibana, Takashi -- Journalist who wrote the Bungei Shunju "Study of Kakuei Tanaka"
* Tachikawa, Tsuneo -- Yoshio Kodama's lieutenant and heir
* Tagawa, Seiichi -- New Liberal Club critic of Tanaka
* Takahashi, Enzaburo -- Dietman from Shimane, succeeded by Noboru Takeshita
* Tenmu
Emperor of Japan (673-686) who started the compilation of a national history known as the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki
* Takeiri, Yoshikatsu -- Komeito Party chief
* Tanaka, Giichi -- Prewar army general and protegé of Yamagata
* Tanaka, Isamu -- Executive of Tokyu Transportation Company
* Tanaka, Keishu -- Democratic Socialist Party member caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Tanaka, Shoji -- Dietman from Niigata's Fourth District who tried to blackmail Tanaka
* Tanuma, Okitsugu -- Japanese Rasputin who usurped power from Ieharu Tokugawa
* Terao, Yoshio -- Pre-Tanaka Niigata Kingpin, President of Nihon Denkin Company
* Tojo, Hideki -- Tosei-ha army general, assumed the post of Prime Minister from 1941 to 1944
* Tokikuni, Yasuo -- Lockheed Appellate trial judge
* Tokugawa, Hidetada -- 2nd Shogun, 1605
* Tokugawa, Ieharu -- 10th Shogun, 1760
* Tokugawa, Ieshige -- 9th Shogun, 1745 (nicknamed the Bedwetting Shogun)
* Tokugawa, Iesada -- 13th Shogun, 1853
* Tokugawa, Ieyasu -- 1st Shogun, 1603, won the battle of Sekigahara in October, 21, 1600
* Tokugawa, Yoshinobu -- 15th and last Tokugawa Shogun, 1866 (also known as Keiki)
* Toyotomi, Hideyori -- Son of Hideyoshi who killed himself after military defeat in 1615
* Toyotomi, Hideyoshi -- A general of Nobunaga who unified Japan (1536-1598)
* Totsugu, Giichi Buddhist monk who replaced Kamano as mayor of Nishiyama after his arrest
* Tsukamoto, Saburo -- Chairman of the Democratic Socialist Party
* Ueda, Minoru Director General of the Environmental Agency in 1984
* Ueda, Takumi -- Japan Socialist Party, from Osaka, caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Uesugi, Kagekatsu -- 1555 to 1623, adopted son of Kenshin Uesugi who exchanged Echigo for Aizu
* Uesugi, Kenshin
-- 1530 to1578, beginning in 1552, he ruled Echigo and 3 other neighboring provinces
* Uesugi, Shinkichi -- Rightwing professor
* Ugaki, Kazushige -- Protegé of General Giichi Tanaka
* Ukita, Hideie -- General who lost to Ieyasu Tokugawa at Sekigahara in 1600
* Uno, Sosuke -- Nakasone Faction lieutenant, Prime Minister in 1989, resigned because of mistress scandal
* Wakasa, Tokuji -- President of All Nippon Airlines, Lockheed defendant
* Watanabe, Hideo -- Nakasone Faction member, Third District of Niigata; caught in the Recruit Scandal
* Watanabe, Hiroyasu -- Ex-President of Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin trucking company
* Watanabe, Kozo -- Tanaka Faction, Second District of Niigata
* Watanabe, Naoji -- Vice President of All Nippon Airways, Lockheed defendant
* Watanabe, Michio -- Nakasone Faction lieutenant, faction boss, member of the Blue Storm Group
* Watari, Shiro -- Niigata's Third District kingpin before Tanaka and Governor in 1946-1949
* Yamagata, Aritomo -- Army general from the Choshu clan, Ito's arch rival, Prime Minister 1898
* Yamamura, Shinjiro -- Minister of Agriculture in 1984
* Yamazaki, Takeshi -- Secretary of the Democratic Liberal Party in 1948
* Yasuoka, Okiharu -- Nikaido Faction Secretary General in 1987
* Yonai, Mitsumasa -- Secretary of the Imperial Navy at the end of the Pacific War
* Yoshida, Shigeru -- Faction boss, Hatoyama's rival, Prime Minister in 1946 and again in 1948
* Yoshihito -- The Emperor Taisho, 1912 - 1926

Appendix D

The Members Of The Mokuyo Club At Its Pinacle In 1983

(Sixty-five members of The Lower House of Representatives
& fifty-two members of the Upper House of Councilors)

The Six Lieutenants

1. Susumu Nikaido, age 73, Kagoshima Prefecture, University of Southern California, 13 terms in office. LDP Vice President, LDP Secretary General, Chief Cabinet Secretary, Director General of the Science and Technology Agency and Chairman of the Mokuyo Club. He escaped prosecution in the Lockheed Scandal only because the Statute of Limitations ran out. Nikaido once said "my hobby is Kakuei Tanaka." (Lower House of Representatives)

2. Noboru Takeshita, age 59, Shimane Prefecture, Waseda University, 10 terms in office, Minister of Finance, Minister of Construction and Chief Cabinet Secretary. (Lower House of Representatives)

3. Masaharu Gotoda, age 68, Tokushima Prefecture, Tokyo University, 4 terms in office, Director General of the Management and Coordination Agency, Chief Cabinet Secretary, Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission and Director of the National Police Agency. Equal to Nikaido in having Tanaka's complete trust. (Lower House of Representatives)

4. Ganri Yamashita, age 62, Shiga Prefecture, Tokyo University, 6 terms in office, Director General of the Defense Agency. (Lower House of Representatives)

5. Shin Kanemaru, age 68, Yamanashi Prefecture, Tokyo Agricultural College, 10 terms, Minister of Construction, Director General of the National Defense Agency and LDP Secretary General. His eldest son married Takeshita's eldest daughter. (Lower House of Representatives)

6. Masumi Esaki, age 67, Aichi Prefecture, Nihon University, 15 terms in office, Deputy Chairman of the Mokuyo Club, Director General of the Defense Agency, Minister of International Trade and Industry and Chairman of the LDP Policy Affairs and Research Council. (Lower House of Representatives)

 

All Other Members

7. Takeo Kimura, age 80, Yamagata Prefecture, Meiji University, 12 terms in office, Minister of Construction, Director General of the Administrative Agency and Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission. (Lower House)

8. Hideo Utsumi, age 61, Miyagi Prefecture, Chuo University, 6 terms in office, Vice Secretary General of the LDP and Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

9. Yoshiro Hayashi, age 56, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Tokyo University, 5 terms in office, Minister of Health and Welfare. (Lower House)

10. Sachio Yamamoto, age 72, Mie Prefecture, Tokyo University, 5 terms in office, Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission and formerly the Chief of Police for Osaka. (Lower House)

11. Matazo Kajiki, age 64, Independent,* Kyoto University, 3 terms in office, Director General of the Environment Agency and formerly Chairman of the Special Committee on Lockheed. (Upper House of Councilors)

12. Hajime Tamura, age 59, Mie Prefecture, Keio University, 10 terms in office, Minister of Labor and Minister of Transport. (Lower House)

13. Jushiro Komiyama, age 56, Saitama Prefecture, Waseda University, 7 terms in office, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications and Vice Minister of Construction; formerly a reporter for the Yomiuri Shinbun. (Lower House)

14. Noboru Minowa, age 59, Hokkaido Prefecture, Hokkaido University, 6 terms in office, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Lower House)

15. Tokusaburo Kosaka, age 67, Tokyo, Tokyo University, 5 terms in office, Minister of Transport and Director General of the Economic Planning Agency; formerly a reporter for the Asahi Shinbun. (Lower House)

16. Keizo Obuchi, age 46, Gunma Prefecture, Waseda University, 7 terms in office, Director General of Administrative Affairs in the Prime Minister's Office. (Lower House)

17. Tatsuo Ozawa, age 66, Niigata Prefecture, Tokyo University, 8 terms in office, Minister of Construction and Minister of Health and Welfare. (Lower House)

18. Joji Omura, age 64, Okayama Prefecture, Tokyo University, 6 terms in office, Director General of Self Defense Agency. (Lower House)

19. Ryutaro Hashimoto, age 46, Okayama Prefecture, Keio University, 7 terms in office, Minister of Health and Welfare. (Lower House)

20. Aiko Shimura, age 66, Independent, Tokyo Music School, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister for the Development of Hokkaido; formerly a children's singer. (Upper House)

21. Yoshiko Otaka, age 63, Independent, Girls High School, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Enviroment Agency; formerly a movie actress. (Upper House)

22. Akiko Santo, age 41, Independent, Bunka Gakuin, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Environment Agency; formerly a movie actress. (Upper House)

23. Chuji Kuno, age 73, Aichi Prefecture, Tokai Middle School, 13 terms in office, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications and Chairman of the House Audit Committee. (Lower House)

24. Tokuro Adachi, age 73, Shizuoka Prefecture, Kyoto University, 11 terms in office, Minister of Agriculture and Director General of the Science and Technology Agency. (Lower House)

25. Masao Maeda, age 70, Nara Prefecture, Yamanashi Technical High School, 11 terms in office, Minister of the Science and Technology Agency. (Lower House)

26. Ken Harada, age 64, Osaka, flunked out of Meiji University, 10 terms in office, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications and Minister of Transport. (Lower House)

27. Ryoichi Nagata, age 72, Hyogo Prefecture, Keio University, 10 terms in office, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. (Lower House)

28. Takao Kameoka, age 63, Fukushima Prefecture, Army College, 8 terms in office, Minister of Construction and Minister of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries. (Lower House)

29. Reiichi Takeuchi, age 57, Aomori Prefecture, Tokyo University, 7 terms in office, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. He used to be a reporter for the Mainichi Shinbun. (Lower House)

30. Ryohei Tamura, age 66, Kochi Prefecture, Waseda University, six terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

31. Yukiyasu Matsuno, age 75, Gifu Prefecture, Commercial High School, 6 terms in office, Director General of the National Land Agency. (Lower House)

32. Shinjiro Yamamura, age 50, Chiba Prefecture, Gakushuin University, 6 terms in office, Vice Minister of Transport. (Lower House)

33. Hajime Ishii, age 49, Hyogo Prefecture, Stanford University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Transport. (Lower House)

34. Keiwa Okuda, age 55, Ishikawa Prefecture, Waseda University, Vice Secretary General of the LDP. (Lower House)

35. Ichiro Ozawa, age 41, Iwate Prefecture, Keio University, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

36. Shigeyoshi Saito, age 64, Shizuoka Prefecture, Waseda University, 5 terms in office, Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

37. Megumu Sato, age 59, Osaka, Kyoto University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Lower House)

38. Moriyoshi Sato, age 61, Hiroshima Prefecture, Chuo University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of the National Land Agency. (Lower House)

39. Osamu Takatori, age 54, Niigata Prefecture, Tokyo University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Lower House)

40. Eiji Nonaka, age 63, Saitama Prefecture, Keio University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of the National Land Agency. (Lower House)

41. Tsutomu Hata, age 48, Nagano Prefecture, Seijo University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Lower House)

42. Kozo Watanabe, age 51, Fukushima Prefecture, Waseda University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Education. (Lower House)

43. Tamisuke Watanuki, age 56, Toyama Prefecture, Keio University, 5 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Lower House)

44. Masatoshi Tokunaga, age 70, Independent, Navy Telecommunications College, 5 terms in office, Minister of Transport. (Lower House)

45. Koichiro Aino, age 55, Saga Prefecture, Chuo University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. (Lower House)

46. Motoharu Arima, age 63, Kagoshima Prefecture, Tokyo University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Defense Agency. (Lower House)

47. Seiroku Kajiyama, age 57, Ibaraki Prefecture, Nihon University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House )

48. Makoto Someya, age 65, Chiba Prefecture, Takushoku University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Defense Agency. (Lower House)

49. Shuichi Takenaka, age 65, Aomori Prefecture, Tohoku University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

50. Toshio Nakayama, age 58, Ibaraki Prefecture, Nihon University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Justice. (Lower House)

51. Okiharu Yasuoka, age 44, Amami Islands, Chuo University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Lower House)

52. Kozo Watanabe, age 41, Niigata Prefecture, flunked out of Waseda High School, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

53. Minoru Ueda, age 69, Kyoto, Kyoto University, 4 terms in office, Vice Minister of Hokkaido Development. (Upper House)

54. Minoru Genda, age 79, Independent, Navy College, 4 terms in office. He once was Chief of Staff for the Imperial Air Force during the attack on Pearl Harbor. (Upper House)

55. Shoji Nishimura, age 72, Tottori Prefecture, Tokyo University, 4 terms in office, Director General of Administrative Affairs in the Prime Minister's Office. (Upper House)

56. Kazuo Aichi, age 46, Miyagi Prefecture, Tokyo University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. (Lower House)

57. Saburo Toida, age 65, Hyogo Prefecture, flunked out of Chuo University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts & Telecommunications. (Lower House)

58. Kishiro Nakamura, age 34, Miyagi Prefecture, Nihon University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

59. Joji Fukushima, age 56, Kumamoto Prefecture, Tokyo University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Environment Agency. (Lower House)

60. Kenzo Muraoka, age 52, Akita Prefecture, Keio University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Construction. (Lower House)

61. Takesaburo Yamasaki, age 51, Kagoshima Prefecture, Chuo University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Lower House)

62. Yuji Osada, age 66, Independent, Tokyo University, 3 terms in office, Director General of Science and Technology. (Upper House)

63. Raishiro Koga, age 67, Independent, Kyushu University, 3 terms in office, Vice Chairman of the Policy Affairs Research Council of the LDP. (Upper House)

64. Kakuzo Kawamoto, age 66, Shiga Prefecture, Hikone Commercial High School, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of International Trade & Industry. (Upper House)

65. Juro Saito, age 43, Mie Prefecture, Keio University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Upper House)

66. Masataka Seko, age 60, Wakayama Prefecture, Nihon University, 3 terms in office, Minister of Home Affairs. (Upper House)

67. Tai Morishita, age 61, Osaka, Tokyo University, 3 terms in office, Vice Minister of the Environment Agency. (Upper House)

68. Ichizo Ohara, age 59, Miyazaki Prefecture, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office. (Lower House)

69. Shinji Sato, age 51, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Keio University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister for Okinawa Development. (Lower House)

70. Takashi Tawara, age 58, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu University, 2 terms in office, (Lower House)

71. Keisuke Nakanishi, age 42, Wakayama, Waseda University, 2 terms in office. (Lower House)

72. Eijiro Hata, age 55, Oita Prefecture, flunked out of Musashi Technical School, 2 terms in office. (Lower House)

73. Kunio Hatoyama, Tokyo, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office. His first job was as a private secretary to Tanaka. His grandfather was the godfather of postwar politics in Japan, former Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama. Kunio graduated first in his class at Todai. (Lower House) His father is Iichiro Hatoyama, Nakasone Faction, Upper House.

74. Kosuke Hori, age 49, Saga Prefecture, Keio University, 2 terms in office. (Lower House)

75. Tokichi Abiko, age 79, Yamagata Prefecture, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office, Minister of Home Affairs. (Upper House)

76. Kichio Inoue, age 60, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kumamoto Technical High School, Vice Minister of Finance. (Upper House)

77. Tomoo Ie, age 62, Independent, Tohoku University, 2 terms in office, was JNR executive. (Upper House)

78. Niro Iwakami, age 69, Ibaraki Prefecture, Kyoto University, 2 terms in office, was Governor of Ibaraki. (Upper House)

79. Kaname Endo, age 67, Miyagi Prefecture, Upper Elementary School, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Upper House)

80. Hisaoki Kamei, age 43, Shimane Prefecture, Gakushuin University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Upper House)

81. Shigenobu Sakano, age 66, Independent, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office, Administrative Vice Minister of Construction. (Upper House)

82. Reijo Sugiyama, age 61, Gifu Prefecture, Ryukoku University, 2 terms in office. (Upper House)

83. Shinya Totsuka, age 43, Shizuoka Prefecture, Nihon University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Upper House)

84. Taro Nakamura, age 65, Yamanashi Prefecture, Waseda University, 2 terms in office, Vice Secretary General of the LDP. (Upper House)

85. Shin Hasegawa, age 64, Niigata Prefecture, flunked out of Waseda University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. (Upper House)

86. Hirohisa Fujii, age 51, Independent, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Upper House)

87. Masao Horie, age 68, Independent, Army College, 2 terms in office. (Upper House)

88. Isao Maeda, age 40, Wakayama Prefecture, Keio University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Upper House)

89. Koji Masuoka, age 59, Independent, Tokyo University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister of Finance. (Upper House)

90. Kanpei Matsuo, age 56, Aomori Prefecture, flunked out of Chuo University, 2 terms in office, Vice Minister for Okinawa Development. (Upper House)

91. Norio Imaeda, age 59, Aichi Prefecture, Army Air Force School, 1 term in office. (Lower House)

92. Yoshikazu Kitamura, age 58, Hokkaido, Hokkaido University, 1 term in office. (Lower House)

93. Morio Kimura, age 45, Aomori Prefecture, Nihon University, 1 term in office. (Lower House)

94. Fumio Kyuma, age 42, Nagasaki Prefecture, Tokyo University, 1 term in office. (Lower House)

95. Hiromu Nonaka, age 57, Kyoto Prefecture, Middle School, Vice Governor of Kyoto Prefecture. (Lower House)

96. Takashi Inoue, age 58, Independent, Kyoto University, 1 term in office, Administrative Vice Minister of Construction. (Upper House)

97. Masaru Urata, age 58, Kumamoto Prefecture, Kyushu Gakuin University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

98. Hiroshi Oki, age 56, Aichi Prefecture, Tokyo University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

99. Shinjun Oshiro, age 56, Okinawa, University of Missouri, 1term in office. (Upper House)

100. Hoei Ohama, age 55, Independent, Kumamoto Medical School, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

101. Hiroshi Okano, age 56, Independent, Kyoto University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

102. Sotoo Oki, age 58, Toyama Prefecture, Koa Technical College, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

103. Tsuruzo Kaieda, age 60, Independent, Tokyo University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

104. Kiyoshi Kajiwara, age 61, Independent, Kyoto University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

105. Shinjiro Kawahara, age 65, Kagoshima Prefecture, Agricultural High School, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

106. Tetsuro Shimura, age 57, Yamanashi Prefecture, Hokkaido University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

107. Hiroshi Takeyama, age 49, Shizuoka Prefecture, Keio University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

108. Ken Naito, age 51, Tokushima Prefecture, High School, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

109. Yukio Nakagawa, age 67, Ehime Prefecture, Agricultural School, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

110. Takao Fujii, age 40, Gifu Prefecture, Seijo University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

111. Isao Matsuura, age 60, Independent, Tokyo University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

112. Masuo Matsuoka, age 49, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Waseda University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

113. Chikara Mizutani, age 57, Mie Prefecture, Waseda University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

114. Hiroshi Miyajima, age 56, Nagasaki Prefecture, Nihon University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

115. Toshihiko Yano, age 59, Independent, Tokyo University, 1 term in office. He was an Administrative Vice Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Upper House)

116. Hiroshi Yoshikawa, age 60, Aichi Prefecture, Tokyo Teachers College, 1 term in office. (Upper House)

117. Yoshio Yoshikawa, age 51, Niigata Prefecture, Waseda University, 1 term in office. (Upper House)


© Steven Hunziker.